The Hymmnos Language (ヒュムノス語, hyumunosu go?), called Hymnos in the English-localized materials of the series, is a language created by Akira Tsuchiya for the Ar tonelico series. Hymmnos saw relatively widespread use in ancient times in the world of Ar Ciel, but it has fallen out of common use by the time of Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia. The language is now primarily used by Reyvateils to communicate with their servers, though it has other uses as well; humans can use it to control ancient machinery. Hymmnos's vocabulary stems from a variety of sources, including English, Latin, Japanese, Sanskrit and German.
Hymmnos is notable for placing a heavy emphasis on the emotions of the speaker. A statement in Hymmnos can explicitly convey how the speaker feels about what they are speaking about.
Hymmnos is derived from a language used by the Moon Chanters, an ancient line of shamans who invoked magic through spell casting. Only two dialects from that language have survived into modern times: Kurt Ciel and Carmena Foreluna. While Carmena Foreluna sees practically no use, Kurt Ciel is still spoken in a limited fashion.
Some time after the construction of the First Tower of Ar tonelico, the people in charge of the project adapted the Moon Chanters' language for use as an interface between the people and the Tower. More details about the story of individual dialects can be found in the dialects section of this article.
Hymmnos is generally represented through the eponymous Hymmnos Script.
Hymmnos Script was standardized by the El Elemia Tower Administration Bureau in 3018 AD. The glyphs in this writing system are based on the Emission Concentric Circle. The Emission Concentric Circle is actually made up of several circles, which all share a common center point. This center point is known as the Sound Source.The glyphs themselves contain feelings, which are represented by the waveforms that make up the glyphs. Arching shapes represent "peace (α-Waves)", radiating shapes represent "stimuli (γ-Waves)" and the vertical and parallel lines represent "tension (β-Waves)". The Sound Source can be seen as the source of these feelings.
Numbers are represented as square wave patterns.
The glyphs that make up Hymmnos Script can be seen below.
Because of its great age and its widespread usage around the world of Ar Ciel, several unique dialects of Hymmnos have developed. These dialects behave similarly to dialects of real world languages, having much of the same vocabulary and grammar but adding, removing or changing certain aspects.
The dialects are referred to as "Notes." The following Notes of Hymmnos are known to have been created by the time of the Third Era:
- Central Standard Note (Standard dialect)
- Kurt Ciel Note (Ancient language from before the First Era)
- Cluster Note (Sol Cluster dialect)
- Alpha Note (Origin Spell)
- Ancient Metafalss Note (Sacred language from the First Era)
- New Testament of Pastalie (Pastalia dialect)
Central Standard Note
Central Standard Note is the "standard" dialect of Hymmnos. It was first created and standardized by El Elemia and the managers of the Ar tonelico project to allow humans to interface with the Tower. It is the most widely used Note of Hymmnos, used by Reyvateils for Songs and by humans for operation of the Tower.
Over time, Central Standard Hymmnos has evolved and absorbed new features as other Notes created them. Song Server operations are almost exclusively written using Central Standard Note.
Kurt Ciel Note
Although referred to as a Note, Kurt Ciel Note is actually the basis for the Central Standard Note of Hymmnos. Kurt Ciel was the language used by the Moon Chanters to cast spells. In modern times, it has largely fallen out of use.
Cluster Note was created during the First Era by people in the Sol Cluster region. It was intended to rival Central Standard Note in power and functionality, likely with the intention of surpassing it. Cluster Note never caught on, however, and excepting for a few limited uses in some Metafalssian Songs, this Note has never seen use outside the region of Sol Cluster. Therefore, this Note is exclusive to the Harvestasha Song Server.
The 3 Reyvateil Origins can create Hymmnos words and structures at will. Such creations are referred to as Alpha Note. While the Alpha Note can be immensely powerful, its use is limited to the Tower that the Origin manages. This is because the dialect is only stored within that Tower, rather than being a part of Standard Hymmnos; a Clustanian Reyvateil connected to the HARVESTASHA Song Server cannot use Alpha Note Hymmnos stored on the ARTONELICO Song Server, and a Sol Ciel Reyvateil connected to ARTONELICO cannot use Alpha Note Hymmnos located on HARVESTASHA.
Ancient Metafalss Note
Ancient Metafalss Note was created during the early 2000s by the people of Metafalss. While this Note incorporates heavily the spiritual teachings Metafalss is known for, it was developed using a mathematical approach to produce words whose pronunciation emitted the greatest power, making every single word in the Ancient Metafalss Note much more powerful than any of the words of the Central Standard Note. However, this was done at the cost of making this Note difficult to pronounce and utilize.
Although Metafalss began to decline in the 3000s, diplomatic relations between Metafalss and El Elemia lead to Ancient Metafalss Note being registered onto Ar tonelico's Song Server. This means that Reyvateils connected to ARTONELICO are capable of using Ancient Metafalss Note in their Songs.
New Testament of Pastalie
The New Testament of Pastalie was created for use with Infel Phira during its construction around the year 3400. Only Reyvateils connected to Infel Phira, referred to as Infel Phira Dependents (IPDs), can utilize the New Testament natively. Due to the low energy output of Infel Phira compared to that of Ar tonelico, the New Testament was heavily optimized for speed rather than power. This optimization makes Songs written in Pastalie faster than those written in Central Standard Note, but it also makes any Songs using Pastalie incompatible with the Song Servers that don't support them. On the other hand, IPDs can sing using any Note due to Infel Phira providing emulation capabilities that translate on the fly all words from other Notes into Pastalie, although this impacts negatively on the Song's performance.
The grammar of the New Testament of Pastalie differs heavily from the other Notes that were created during the First Era, so another guide has been made specifically for it.
Grammar (Central Standard Hymmnos)
Note: Standard Hymmnos is the conjunction of all the dialects made during the First Era: Standard Central Note, Kurt Ciel Note, Ancient Metafalss Note, Alpha Note and Cluster Note. This means that words from all these dialects can be used freely in Standard Hymmnos sentences.
Hymmnos was designed with the purpose of stating the speaker's (or singer's) emotions, so most sentences begin with a set of three words called "emotion sounds".
Let's look at an example:
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos mea
- (I will be glad to turn myself into a song)
The first three words, "Was yea ra", are emotion sounds. They are are subdivided into three levels:
- Was is Level 1, used for expressing the intensity of the emotion.
- yea is Level 2, which names type of emotion being felt.
- ra is Level 3, and expresses whether you want the emotion to last, or describes the context in which the emotion is felt.
All known emotion sounds are listed in the following table:
|Intensity||Type||Desire to Last or Context|
The rest of the basic grammar is very simple. It follows this structure:
- (verb) (object) (compound or object)
Returning to our earlier example, chs (to turn into) is the verb, hymmnos (song) is the object and mea (my or myself) is the compound-or-object.
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos mea
- (Very) (happy) (I want this feeling to last) (turn into) (song) (me)
- (I will be glad to turn myself into a song)
Each sentence expresses one emotion, so you can have only one set of emotion sounds per sentence.
There are no verb tenses in Hymmnos; whether a verb refers to a past, present, or future action is implied by the context of the sentence.
By this point, you might be wondering where the subject is. Well, since Hymmnos sentences are first person by default, the subject is usually omitted.
Note: Apparently, the Lv. 2 Emotion Sounds can be used as well as adjectives, nouns and verbs. On the other hand, the adjectives that describe emotions (such as "cyue" or "nyasri") can be used as Lv. 2 Emotion Sounds, as well.
Structure with a Subject
If you wish to speak about what someone else is doing, then you have to use the following structure:
- (verb) rre (subject) (verb) (object) (compound or object)
"rre" is a subject definer. The noun it precedes becomes the subject of the sentence.
The first verb in the sentence describes what you are doing, and the second verb describes what the subject is doing. The sentence is still told from a first person perspective; emotion sounds apply to the speaker even if the speaker is not the subject. No sentence can contain more than one subject, so the subject definer can only be used once per sentence.
- Wee ki ra hyma rre aquagon pagle wart
- (Fairly) (concentrated) (I want this feeling to last) (listen) (subject definer) (aquagon) (talk) (words)
- (I will concentrate on listening to the words that aquagon says)
Both the subject definer and the first verb are omitted if the subject is either a pronoun or being used as an object.
Also, the standard Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) grammar structure can be used in sentences devoid of Emotion Sounds. In these cases, the characteristic grammar rule of "the default subject is always I" of Hymmnos is ignored. And there is another form in which the structures are Verb-Object-Subject (VOS, with the subject being generaly separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma) and Verb-Subject-Object (VSO), containing Emotion Sounds and used for telling stories, but aren't very commonly used.
(Standard SVO structure in a emotionless sentence. Taken from EXEC_HARMONIOUS/. and EXEC_HARMONIOUS_FUSION/.)
- Faura yerwe murfan anw sol ciel
- (Little bird) (chirp) (feelings) (to) (world)
- (The little bird chirps her feelings to the world).
(VSO structure sentence. Taken from EXEC_HIBERNATION/.)
- Was yea ra vit bautifal faura anw dornpica en 1 dyyal nuih bexm
- (Very) (happy) (I want this feeling to last) (see) (beautiful) (little bird) (to) (seed) (and) (night of the first day) (come)
- (The beautiful little bird saw the seeds, and the first night came).
(VOS structure sentence with Emotion Sounds. Taken from EXEC_HIBERNATION/.)
- Rrha cyuie gaya na ieeya crushue anw dornpica, Rhaplanca
(Trance-like) (sadness) (not wanting to go back to my previous state) (doesn't wish to craft) (to) (seeds), (Rhaplanca)
- (Rhaplanca doesn't wish to craft the seeds anymore)
Pronouns can be used in two ways: as objects and as subjects. They differ slightly depending on how they are used.
|Pronoun||Used as Object||Used as Subject|
Use of Particles (Prepositions/Postpositions)
If you need to use particles (or as we also know them, prepositions), you can insert them between the verb and the object. It's only needed if the action of the verb affects something other than yourself, though.
For example, "tes", a particle meaning "to", can be used here:
- Was yea erra melenas tes ar ciel
- (I will be eternally glad to give my love to this world)
But not here:
- Was yea ra sonwe yor hymmnos mea
- (I will be glad to sing my song to you)
Other than typical adjective lexicons, Level 2 Emotion sounds can also be used as adjectives.
Adjectives always come before the noun they affect, as we can see from these examples:
- ridalnae sol ciel
- (irreplaceable world)
- titilia frawr
- (small flower)
If you want to change a verb into a passive voice, insert a "re" before the verb that you want to modify.
For example, prepending a "re" to the verb of this sentence:
- Was ki ra gyuss lir
- (I'm embracing the light)
Changes it into a passive voice statement:
- Was ki ra re gyuss lir
- (I'm being embraced by the light)
If you wish to negate a verb, just add "na" before the verb you want to modify.
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos yor
- (I will be glad to turn you into a song)
Can be negated by prepending "na" to the verb:
- Was yea ra na chs hymmnos yor
- (I will be glad for not turning you into a song)
This mechanism can also affect nouns, making them the opposite of what they would normally be.
Can be changed like this:
- na yehah
- (unhappiness, sadness)
Noun Phrases Indicating Ownership
If two nouns are placed next to each other, then it means that one noun "owns" the other. There isn't an actual rule indicating which noun owns which, however, so the direction of ownership is inferred from context.
- Aurica forlinden
- (Aurica's village)
- revatail ciel
- (Reyvateil's world)
- sarla mea
- (my song)
- hyzik yor
- (your body)
Ownership can also be indicated using the "oz" particle. When it's used, the noun that comes before it is "owned" by the noun that comes after it.
- hymmnos oz faura
- (song of the little birds)
- sarla oz soare
- (song of prayers)
If you want to indicate that something is inside, over, or in front of something else, you can insert a position marking particle before the noun that indicates the position. Use "ween" for inside, "won" for over, and "folten" for before and in front of. (There isn't yet a known particle for "below".)
- won dor
- (over the earth)
- ween kapa
- (inside the water)
- folten forlinden
- (in front of the village)
Special Character Pronunciations
These characters are used in either Hymmnos Binary or in special grammar functions that will be elaborated upon in later sections.
Note: The 0 and the 1 digits used here aren't the same as the ones in the numbers. These ones are used in Hymmnos Binary, and their use is signalled by this mark: #x#>>#### (replace the #s with 0s and 1s).
Hymmnos Binary is used in the execution of the programs within the Tower and in some hymns, like in this example: 0x010001110.
- Nel - 0
- Nnoi - 1
- Zi - 2
- Dri - 3
- Fef - 4
- Vira - 5
- Ixa - 6
- Hept - 7
- Oct - 8
- Nei - 9
- Dec/de - 10
- Hec/he - 100
- Kik/ki - 1000
- Mik/mi - 10000
The second form of the decimals is used when combining them, in a manner similar to Japanese. For instance, zide is 20 and kik octohe ixade octo is 1868.
Apparently, the New Testament of Pastalie dialect has different ways for pronouncing and using numbers, according to KWhazit:
"It has an alternate system for pronouncing numbers than the one normally used. The suggested pronunciation (which sounds close enough to be possibly correct) is ノイ・フェフラ・ノイ (nnoi fefra nnoi). Not only does it sound like what is actually sung, but it makes some logical sense as a shorthand for numbers with many zeroes as well. ノイ (noi) is the usual reading for 1, and フェフ (fef) (without the ラ (ra)) is the usual reading for 4. Putting that together, you have 1, a variation on 4, and another 1. Note that the thousands place, where the first 1 occurs, is the fourth position from the right. Supporting this theory is another note indicating that 5100 (used as the ID# for the Metafalica Hymn Crytal) sounds like ヴィラ・フェフラ・ノイ・トレル (Vira Fefra Nnoi Torel). 5 is ヴィラ, there's that フェフラ (fefra) again, and 3 is ドリ (dri). If we assume that トリル (Torel) is a mishearing of ドリラ (Drira), then we have a clear pattern: Add ラ (ra) to a number n to mean the nth digit from the right. Assuming this holds up, 1,000,000 could be read ノイ・ヘプトラ (Nnoi Heptra, since ヘプト (Hept) = 7), and so on. It would be comparable to writing 14z1 for 1001, 17z for 1,000,000, and so on."
Advanced Grammar Rules
Emotion Sound Keeper Definer Syntax
This structure allows a single set of emotion sounds to be shared by multiple sentences. Even though it's considered an advanced grammar rule, it's actually very simple. It is used in the following way:
- (emotion sounds) 0x vvi. (keeper definer start)
- 1x AAs ixi. (keeper definer end)
What this means is that everything between the two keys, "0x vvi." and "1x AAs ixi.", will inherit the specified set of emotion sounds. For reference, "0x vvi" is pronounced "ogu vivi" and "1x AAs ixi" is pronounced "igu aas ixi".
Here is an example:
- Was yea erra 0x vvi. ("Was yea erra" will be applied from this point forward)
- chs hymmnos mea
- hymme rre walasye hyma mea
- sonwe anw sol ciel
- rre sol ciel hyma hynne mea
- 1x AAs ixi. ("Was yea erra" will no longer applied beyond this point)
- Wee apea ra rre yor melenas
The meaning of that passage is as follows:
- Was yea erra chs hymmnos mea
- (I will be eternally happy to turn into a song)
- Was yea erra hymme rre walasye hyma mea
- (I will be eternally happy that the people hear me)
- Was yea erra sonwe anw sol ciel
- (I will be eternally happy to sing to the world)
- Was yea erra rre sol ciel hyma hynne mea
- (And I will be eternally happy that the world hears me)
- Wee apea ra rre yor melenas
- (I will be immersed in happiness to love you)
The important thing to note is that even though "Was yea erra" was only spoken once, it was implied four times.
Double Register of Emotion Sounds
Even though writing Emotion Sounds in a sentence when using the Emotion Sound Keeper Definer Syntax is redundant, it can be done. It's only necessary if you want to indicate a change in emotion over one sentence between two parts that share the inherited emotion. Song servers give priority to explicitly specified Emotion Sounds when processing songs that make use of the Keeper Definer Syntax.
- Wee apea ra 0x vvi.
- (I will be immersed in happiness)
- her ar ciel irs
- (I'm immersed in happiness because I exist in this world)
- hyma rre faura sonwe
- (I'm immersed in happiness for listening to the singing of the birds)
- Was yea erra sonwe hymmnos mea
- (I will be eternally happy to sing my song)
- sonwe sos rre ar ciel
- (I'm immersed in happiness singing for the sake of this world)
- 1x AAs ixi.
As written here, the emotion associated with the third sentence is "Was yea erra", while all other lines carry "Wee apea ra".
This is one of the most complicated grammar rules existent in Hymmnos, and it's used to sing two lines of lyrics as if they were one. (Binasphere means "two worlds" in Hymmnos, this meaning that within the Binasphere Chorus song, there are two worlds contained). Doing this gives more power to the song since a song using this technique can have two simultaneous effects.
Historically, this was developed by the Moon Chanters a little after Hymmnos was standardized halfway during the First Era, in search of methods to make the language even more powerful. Since humans are unable to sing more than one song at once, their Binasphere Chorus method required two simultaneous singers to be executed. Also, it had another fatal flaw: since both singers were humans, no matter how much they tried to sympathize with each other's emotions, they were never be able to reach the synchronization level needed to create a Song Magic. Theoretically, if they had succedeed at their attempts, the songs of the Moon Chanters would have gotten roughly five to ten times more powerful than what they normally were. However, they still would have never be able to compete with Reyvateils that were born afterwards, since their power was only a hundredth of the one the Reyvateils could command with their songs.
Now that we have reviewed its history, let's give a look at the process of turning the following two lines into a single Binasphere Chorus line:
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos yor
- (I will be glad to turn you into a song)
- en chsee fwal fwal yor
- (and then, I shall spread out your wings)
First, take those two lines and break them up however you wish. Individual words may be broken up into multiple pieces, too. Rewrite everything in uppercase characters and on the same line, then mark each word that was broken into more than one piece with an "x" at the end of each fragment, except for the last fragment of each word.
For this example, we've broken up and combined the lines as follows:
- => WAS EN YEx CHx A SEE RA CHS FWx HYMMx AL NOS FWAL YOR YOR
Notice how word fragments from both the first and second lines are mixed with each other? Assign each fragment a number: 0 for fragments that originally came from the first line, and 1 for fragments that originally came from the second line:
=> WAS EN YEx CHx A SEE RA CHS FWx HYMMx AL NOS FWAL YOR YOR 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Use those numbers to make a Binasphere Formula for this song. Binasphere Formulas look like this:
- EXEC hymme 2X1/0>>formula
The word formula should replaced with the string of numbers that we got after assigning 0s and 1s to each fragment. Following our example above, the formula for this case would be:
And thus, the Binasphere Formula for this example is:
- EXEC hymme 2X1/0>>010101001010101.
The formula is always placed at the end of the song, and a song can't have more than one Binasphere formula. If you want to use the Binasphere format again in the same song, then your lyrics will have to be adapted to work with the first formula. The => (pronounced "Tab") is used to mark the point at which the Binasphere lines begin:
Let's use the following set of lines from EXEC_NULLASCENSION/. in an example of how to decode a set of Binasphere lines:
- => RRHA RRHA GUWO Ax GAx PEx GIS A GAx TIE INNx
- GIS NA GRAN GAx PAUL NOx TYUNY INI SAASH AR YANJE
- CIEL EN INI LA ZAx AR HHA CIEL RRHA RRHA Ax GUWO
- GA PEx GAx A TYUNY RA HARx AR CIEL
- TES EN YORA INI CHYET WAx SOR GAx LAx TYUNx SYE LA
- FORx GANx ART SA DAL FAYx WASSA RA CIEL
- EXEC hymme 2x1/0>>01101010
We have to use the formula to figure out which fragments belong to which lines. Since this Binasphere formula is shorter than the total number of fragments in lyrics, we have to keep looping the formula until we reach the end of the song. (The "/" isn't actually used, but we use it in this example to show where the formula is looping):
=> RRHA RRHA GUWO Ax GAx PEx GIS A GAx TIE INNx 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 / 0 1 1 GIS NA GRAN GAx PAUL NOx TYUNY INI SAASH AR YANJE 0 1 0 1 0 / 0 1 1 0 1 0 CIEL EN INI LA ZAx AR HHA CIEL RRHA RRHA Ax GUWO 1 0 / 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 / 0 1 GA PEx GAx A TYUNY RA HARx AR CIEL 1 0 1 0 1 0 / 0 1 1 TES EN YORA INI CHYET WAx SOR GAx LAx TYUNx SYE LA 0 1 0 1 0 / 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 FORx GANx ART SA DAL FAYx WASSA RA CIEL 0 / 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
Note: The end of the final loop has to coincide with the last fragment of the song.
After that, we need to put the fragments back together on their respective lines, as indicated by the formula.
This is how the lines look once they've been pieced back together:
- Rrha apea gagis gran paul nosaash yanje en ini ar ciel
- (In this delightful trance, I feel that the way will be opened, for the goddess to purify this world forever)
- Rrha guwo gagis tie innna gatyuny ini ar ciel la zahha
- (In this trance of hatred, I shall tie this curse to the inside of my mind, and then, I shall purify and make advance this world)
- Rrha apea ra hartes yora chyet walasye forgandal wassa ciel
- (In the midst of this trance of delight, I will love your special persons, because of the festival of the world)
- Rrha guwo ga gatyuny ar ciel en ini sor gatyunla art sa fayra
- (In this transient anger, I shall purify this accursed world through the flames of the hell)
Note: In theory, it's possible to use the Binasphere Chorus function in Pastalie sentences too, but so far, no more details on this have been revealed.
Normally, if a sentence doesn't begin with emotion sounds, then it's implied that it has the same emotion sounds as the sentence that came before it. But if none of the sentences in a song have emotion sounds (and if the sentences aren't using the Emotion Sound Keeper Definer Syntax), then the Tower can't process it as a spell. It's accepted as a simple song instead, used only to convey feelings without a specific effect to execute. Even though a song without emotion sounds can still invoke some magical effect, the effect wouldn't be very strong.
Here is an example taken from the lyrics of EXEC_HARMONIOUS/.:
- Faura yerwe murfan anw sol ciel
- (The little birds chirp their feelings to the world)
- Faura sonwe murfan anw sol ciel ee
- (The little birds sing their feelings to the people)
- Ridalnae sol ciel yanyaue manaf
- (This irreplaceable world, and these precious lives)
- Presia yasra lusye enclone anw omnis
- (Wish that the light of love would flood from the sun and wrap everything)
- Faura selena anw Metafalica
- (The little birds play the song of hope)
This song was used to convey feelings to someone in the story of Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia, but not for executing functions through the Tower. It still contains Hymmnos lines expressing the thoughts of the singer, though. The end result of this song is the fusion of feelings, but since it depends mostly on the feelings of the singer, the Tower doesn't do much in response to it.
Grammar (New Testament of Pastalie)
Words from Standard Hymmnos can be used in Pastalie sentences, thanks to the emulation capabilities provided by Infel Phira, but if a word with similar meaning exists in the Pastalie vocabulary, then it's more commonly used due to the fact that Infel Phira requires additional processing power and time to use words from other dialects, thus reducing the overall execution efficiency and power of the song.
For example: "rawah" (from Pastalie Hymmnos) and "frawr" (from Standard Hymmnos) both mean "flower", but "rawah" is used more often in Pastalie sentences.
On the other hand, Pastalie words cannot be used in Standard Hymmnos sentences, except in dual-server songs with the EXEC_over.METHOD or EXEC_with.METHOD prefixes. This is because neither Ar tonelico or Harvestasha have any of the Pastalie words registered in their respective Hymmnoservers.
Pastalie is designed on the concept of expressing several meanings and emotions with as few words as possible. The simplest Pastalie sentences can be formed from just one word, which is an "emotion verb". This type of verb is the basis for the New Testament of Pastalie's design; no sentence can be complete without it. There will be a whole section dedicated to emotion verbs later on, as it's very complicated.
For now, let's look at the simplest example ever:
- (I will gladly sing)
As with standard Hymmnos, the default subject of a sentence is "I". All Pastalie sentences end with /. Although it's actually a syntactical element for putting the given sentence into operation in a similar fashion to hymn names like EXEC_XYZ/., let's say that it is the normal "dot" at the end of each sentence for simplicity's sake. If it's way too emotional, you can replace "/." with "!". If it's a question, use "?" in place of "/."
All Pastalie sentences must express the speaker's emotion towards the matter mentioned in the sentence. The exception to that rule is the Xc=ABC -> XYZ/. syntax, which will be explained in the advanced grammar section.
The main advantage that Pastalie Hymmnos has over the Standard dialect is that you can explain multiple levels of emotions at once: your own emotion, emotion towards "you" (the person being spoken to), and emotion towards the world, all with a single verb. On the other hand, it cannot express the degree of the emotion and whether you want the emotion to last or not, as Standard Hymmnos can with its first and third emotion sounds.
When you want to add an object, just add it after the verb.
- hEmmErYE hymmnos/.
- (I will gladly sing a song)
This is similar to English, and the reverse of Japanese.
In cases where particles (better known as prepositions or postpositions in English) must be used, insert them after the verb and before the object. Particles are used when the result of the verb's action affects something other than yourself.
You should use a particle when saying, "give blessing to the earth", for example, but not when saying, "sing (a) song". It's a bit complex and different from both English and Japanese, but you can get used to it by seeing it a lot. This rule is common to both Hymmnos dialects.
Here is an example of using the "ut" particle, meaning "to" or "towards":
- lElLYEn ut doodu/.
- (I gladly give a blessing to the earth)
And an example of when a particle is omitted:
- hEmEmLYEr sarla/.
- (I gladly sing a song)
At a first look, words like hYEmmEr or fOwOrYUn look like crazy strings of letters from someone typing with the Shift key held and released rapidly. In actuality, all emotion verbs are made from 2 components.
The first component is the "base verb", which look like these: h.m.m.r., f.w.r.n., a.u.k., c.z. It consists of two or more lower case letters with a dot "." called "bank period" in between each character. A base verb is a complete word and has meaning, but it does not contain any emotion (and Hymmnos is all about expressing emotion).
The second component is the "emotion vowel", which are those upper case letters you see in emotion verbs. Their function is to express the emotions associated with the action of the verb.
Whenever a base verb has at least one emotion vowel, it becomes an emotion verb. Just replace a bank period with an emotion vowel. All other unused bank periods in the base verb are removed.
From left to right, bank periods are called "bank 1", "bank 2"... The smaller the bank number, the higher degree of emotion. In other words, from left to right, the degree of emotion decreases.
- h.m.m.r. (base verb: to sing) +
- E (emotion vowel: happy) +
- A (emotion vowel: strength/concentration) =
- hEmmrA (I gladly sing with my strength)
- (But my happy feeling is higher than my concentration feeling)
Now add /. to the end and you have a complete sentence, "hEmmrA/.", which means "I will gladly sing with my strength".
When an emotion vowel is repeated, that means that the feeling is multiplied (hEmEmrA means that I'm much happier than hmEmrA).
"x." is a special verb, known as the "subject definer". It's used when the subject of the sentence is not the speaker/singer, and will be explained in a later section.
Finally, there are cases when base base verbs are used in sentences, such as when verbs are used as part of the object or subject, which will be elaborated upon further below.
Emotion vowels express the subject's emotional state when performing the action described by the base verb. (The subject may be either the speaker/singer, or another subject defined in the sentence.) They are divided into 3 groups called "Levels".
Level 1: Emotion vowels that express the subject's own feeling.
Level 2: Emotion vowels that express the speaker/singer's feeling towards the target being spoken to (usually "you, the audience listening to this story"). This "you" is from the speaker/singer's perspective, which may not be the same as the subject's perspective.
Level 3: Emotion vowels that express the speaker/singer's feeling towards the people of the world (from now on known as "this world").
Here is a list of all emotion vowels and their meanings:
As you can see, with the exception of the difference between between A and YA/LYA, they are mostly the same. Level 1 vowels have different meanings when used with "x." (the subject definer), however, and those will be explained in a later section.
In addition to expressing the emotions of the subject, emotion vowels also indicate the target that's receiving the result of the action, provided that the target is either "I", "you" or "this world". This is quite hard to explain, so let's look at a few examples.
- Standard Hymmnos:
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos mea.
- New Testament of Pastalie:
- cEzE hymmnos/.
They both mean, "I will happily turn (myself) into a song". The "mea" in the Standard Hymmnos sentence refers to means "me", the target of the verb "chs" (turn into). But we don't see that in the Pastalie version because the two "E" vowels in the verb "cEzE" already define the subject as the target of the action. (Remember, though, that the subject may not necessarily be the same as the speaker/singer.)
- Standard Hymmnos:
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos yor.
- New Testament of Pastalie:
- cEzYE hymmnos/.
Both sentences mean, "I will happily turn you into a song". The "YE" means the target of the action "turning into" is "you (the person listening to this sentence)". Furthermore, it means that the action "turn you into a song" is happening for the sake of "your" happiness. So, if we translate each sentence word for word, we get:
- Was yea ra chs hymmnos yor.
- (very) (happy) (I want this to last) (turn into) (song) (you)
- (With great happiness and wanting this happiness to last, I turn you into a song.)
- cEzYE hymmnos/.
- (turn into + my happiness + your happiness) (song)
- (With happiness and for the sake of your happiness, I turn you into a song.)
Each type of Hymmnos features its own kind of advantage in expression. The same case is applied to level 3 emotion vowels; they, too, can indicate that "everyone" or "the world" is the target of the base verb's action.
Time for the "x." to come into play. Remember that I said all Pastalie (and all Hymmnos, regardless of which dialect) sentences have the speaker/singer as the default subject? Well, now any sentence where the speaker/singer is not a subject will begin with the special verb "x.", also known as subject definer. In fact, most Pastalie lines you see in hymns and songs are this type.
Even though it's special, "x." is still a verb with only one bank period and you can insert an emotion vowel there. What it does is to express the speaker's emotion towards the matter mentioned in the sentence.
Example: xE yorr cEzE hymmnos/. (You will gladly turn into a song, and I feel happy about that)Subject
Subjects in Pastalie are quite hard to understand, but once you get it you will be able to use it quite easily (unlike emotion verbs which require a lot of time to figure out).
To make things simple, I'll just list out EVERY possible situations of subject that could ever happen through examples. For a person, we'll use Lazy, and for a non-person thing we'll use "lyuma" (star). Finally, for subject definer we'll use "xA" (I feel neutral about...)
Situation 1: The speaker/singer ("I") as the subject [verb]/.
Very simple, no subject definer needed, since "I" is the default subject in all Hymmnos sentences already.
Situation 2: "You", "He", "She" as the subject xA _____ [verb]/.
Check up the pronouns table above and fill the blank with the correct pronoun for your subject.
Situation 3: A particular person or thing as the subject xA rre ______ [verb]/.
Just add the noun you need. In case of noun phrase that indicates ownership... Well I'll explain it later, in next part.
- xA rre lazy hYEmEmArA/. (Lazy sings happily)
- xA rre lyuma hYEmEmArA/. (The star sings happily)
Situation 4: "That" or "Those" as the subject
xA sorr [verb]/.
Basically the idea of the last sentence is used as the subject in this sentence... Like this (direct example from METHOD_REPLEKIA/. lyrics, but I removed the emotion parts to make it more simple)
xA harr hLYUmLYUmOrO eje/. (She sings (the song of) her heart)
xA sorr kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/. (Her singing covers all people)
There is a faster way to express this though, through an advanced grammar: verb used as subject (known as "clause" in English). I'll explain it later, as always.
Situation 5: "This" or "These" as the subject
[noun or sentence] <-x [verb]/.
This will be explained in the <-x advanced grammar part.
Noun Phrases That Indicate Ownership
Simply put, those are nouns indicating normal things with an owner, kinda like they belong to someone/something else. There are two types of noun phrases: Things belong to person/people (Lazy's star) and things belong to a non-person thing (sound of waterfall, for example).
Type 1: Thing belonging to person/people
Add an emotional vowel infront of it, making sure that its level corresponds to the grade of person/people you are trying to indicate. The type of emotion in the vowel is also the emotion the owner express when owning the thing. For definite ownership, add a level 1 vowel followed by a lower dash "_" and then the owner's name.
- Alyuma (My star, which I feel neutral about)
- YIlyuma (Your star, which you feel jealous about)
- LYElyuma (People's star, which they feel happy about)
- Ulyuma_lazy (Lazy's star, which he feel sad about)
This is the only different from how it's used in Standard Hymmnos.
Type 2: Thing belonging to a non-person thing
First noun is the "owner", second noun is the thing being owned. Example:
- zalez ale ("sound of waterfall" or "waterfall's sound")
- zodal sechel ("capital of death" or "death's capital")
- vonn papana ("rain of darkness" or "darkness' rain")
Just imagine that there is an invisible "'s" inbetween 2 consecutive nouns.
And finally, both types of "ownership" can be mixed together, but of course this can be a bit complex:
ayulsa Asiance_qejyu (People's ideal land of eternity)
Advanced Grammar Rules
XXX/. -> YYY/.
This allows you to store an entire phrase as a word. However, it only works for the song in which the function is used. It can make the sentences harder to understand, but also allows to make them shorter
- colga/. -> cEzE colga sos qOgYIs/. (Ice -> I shall be happy to turn into ice to put an end to you).
Wherever "colga/." might be used from now on, it will mean the same as "cEze colga sos qOgYIs/.".
Putting "rre" infront of a subject that normally doesn't require it (you, he, she...) will "emphasize" the subject.
- xA rre herr hYEmmrE/. (He sings, emphasis on "he", to say that it's that person, that "him" and not anyone else)
- xI rre yorr cEzE hymmnos/. (You turn into a song, emphasis on "you", it's "you" and not anyone else who turn into a song)
You can also emphasize the subject "I" by putting subject definer (expressing what you think about your own situation), followed by "rre mea".
xU rre mea hAmmrA hymmnos/. (I sing the song with all my strength, emphasis on "I", and also express that I feel sad about my own singing)
Simply add "eh" after the emotion verb to change the sentence totally from active to passive voice.
Example: xU rre lazy fYUwrUn lyuma/. (Lazy embraces the star) ---> xU rre lazy fYUwrUneh lyuma/. (Lazy is being embraced by the star)
Unlike in English or Japanese, you don't need a particle to indicate the action's performer (no need to add "by" like English or change "wo" to "ni" like Japanese).
When you want to say "want to do something" in Pastalie (usually more like "want to be able to do something"), add "aye" after the verb.
xA rre lazy hYEmmrEaye hymmnos/. (Lazy wants (to be able to) sing a song)
Adding "zz" infront of an emotion verb or a noun means the negative of it.
hYOmmrU/. (I sing) ---> zz hYOmmrU/. (I don't sing)
arhou (hope) ---> zz arhou (hopelessness, despair)
To "quote", put your sentence in :/ and /: (looks like some sort of un-smiley face). The /: replaces the /. at the end of sentence too.
:/sYAlE yor/: ("I believe in you")
The word "en" can be used the same way as our normal "and". Just use it when you think it fits, or use it in the same way as the comma ","
As it was mentioned before, the main element of a Pastalie sentence is emotion verb, but sometimes when the action is being performed without emotion, like by a machine, or in an unconscious state, you can use a bare verb as well, though this is uncommon. Note that if "I" is not the subject, then you still need an emotion vowel for the subject definer.
xA rre lazy h.m.m.r./. (Lazy sings without any emotion)
Note: The next kind of advanced grammar; and this one are different.
Verb treated as subject
Also known as "clause" in English. Let's say, directly from the lyrics of METHOD_REPLEKIA/. we have these lines:
xA harr hLYUmLYUmOrO eje/. (She sings (the song of) her heart)
xA sorr kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/. (Her song covers the people)
By now you should be able to understand the above 2 sentences.
Now let's say we combine them into 1 sentence... There are 2 situations, "Her singing covers the people" and "Her singing of her heart covers the people".
First situation is very easy, the "clause" doesn't contain the object "eje", and you can combine them to this:
xA harr hLYUmLYUmOrO kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/.
Note that the "xA" expresses the emotion of the main sentence, so if the second original sentence was xU sorr kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/. then the result would be:
xU harr hLYUmLYUmOrO kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/.
Second situation is a pain... I'll just give you the example result first: xA harr h.m.m.r. eje kLYUvLYUr du qejyu/.
If you add in the object "eje", you have to remove the emotion from the "hLYUmLYUmOrO" verb, to prevent mistaking information between the 2 clauses. Why remove emotion vowels from that verb, and not "kLYUvLYUr" verb? Because the latter is the main verb of the sentence, which is more important, and must have emotion.
xN rre hLYImLYUmOrO a.u.k. zess quesa/. (Her singing is like thunder)
"a.u.k." is the "to be" verb, and "zess" means "similar to". This is your standard type of comparison sentence, in which "a.u.k." usually has its emotion removed due to it being the "to be" that usually doesn't have emotion, unless it's the main verb in sentence (Example, aEuk lazy/. means "I am (happy to be) Lazy).
Verb Used as Object
What could be worse when you want to say "I embrace her singing of her heart"? Is it fEwrEn harr h.m.m.r. eje/.? No. It is:
fEwrEn x. harr h.m.m.r. eje/.
Yes, the subject definer is used in bare form here as well. This only happen when the "clause" is used as object, and only when the subject of the clause is not "I" so that subject definer has to be used in that "clause".
xA rre lazy fEwrEn x. harr h.m.m.r. eje/. (Lazy embraces her singing of her heart)
Even when no object is needed for the clause, you STILL need to remove the emotion vowels for the subject definer AND verb. Example:
xA rre lazy fEwrEn x. harr h.m.m.r./. (Lazy embraces her singing) (This does not mean that Lazy is a "her", we're talking about a particular "her", so please don't be mistaken)
What if it's "I embrace my singing of my heart"?
fEwrEn h.m.m.r. eje/.
But if you want to emphasize the "I" in the object clause:
fEwrEn x. rre mea h.m.m.r. eje/.
This suffix turns the verb that preceeds it into a noun, allowing it to be used as a subject or noun. However, unlike the methods discussed before, it also allows the use of Emotion Vowels in it, allowing also more variety in emotional expression. The suffix can be attached to the end of the verb, or separated by a space.
- xE harr hLYEmEmErza wEwEjLYEnEcE ut sphaela/. (I'm happy that her joyful singing resounds to the world).
And this other one shows the "-za" separated form the verb by a space (taken from METHOD_IMPLANTA/.)
- wYAfA za rYAfrm 1001 Atitia_qejyu en vYAsk yor/. (My wish is to show you the 1001 good hearts of the people, so you can experience them). (Note: This is general information took from the Settei Book, and there are some instances of the use of -za that haven't been deciphered yet).
One Subject With Multiple Verbs
I'll just give you the example, since this part it's insanely hard:
xA sorr mLYOrArA du sphaela/. (Her singing reflects this world)
xO rre mLYOtOyOyO giz wOsLYI du giz/. (Her singing creates terror, gives birth to terror)
You see, on the second sentence there are two verbs in one sentence, this is not "clause" but just a normal sentence with more than one verb, thus I add the comma "," inbetween the two verbs. You also notice (do you?) that the second sentence seems not to have a subject, after "rre" it jumps right to the first verb. Well, I can only say like this: In case of multiple verbs in a sentence, the last subject is supposed to be implied to this sentence, provided that you add subject definer and "rre" to it.
Xc=ABC -> XYZ/.
The -> is NOT the same as the one used in Binasphere Chorus. Your standard "If...then..." with a small notice: Both "if" and "then" clause must have the same subject, and that must be the subject from the last sentence.
aEuk lazy/. (I am Lazy)
Xc=hLYEmYEmArA -> cEzLYE hymmnos/. (If I sing then I will become a song)
When the subject is not "I" then there won't be any subject definer on the Xc= and -> phrases, since that's carried over from the above sentence too.
There are two uses of "<-x". For the first use, let's take a look at an example from the song MIO:
zz arhou, balduo, ujes, Oqejyu, xA rre <-x aYAuAkN kajya LYAglansee qejyu/.
(Despair, darkness, malicious minds, hated people, THESE are also necessary for our hearts)
Basically, "xA rre <-x" replaces one or a couple of things you just listed out earlier. "xA rre <-x" works like "this" or "these" in English.
However, "<-x" can also be used when you want to replace a phrase, not just nouns. When you replace a phrase, put the phrase in front, then add "<-x". This is in fact the third way to combine 2 sentences that share a phrase.
Maybe an example should be better. When you want to say "I feel sad about the fact that Lazy's happily singing (a song) becomes a star" you have three methods...
- First method: Using "sorr". This forces you to use 2 sentences but also allows you to express a different emotion for each sentence.
xE rre Lazy hYEmmEr hymmnos/.
xU sorr cEzE lyuma/.
- Second method: Treat the phrase "Lazy's singing a song" as a verb.
xU rre Lazy h.m.m.r. hymmnos cEzE lyuma/.
- Third method: Using "<-x".
xE rre Lazy hYEmmEr hymmnos <-x cEzE lyuma
I hope the example is easy enough to understand. Take note that the subject definer in the second method is "xU" while the third method is "xE". They only express either emotion from either original sentence.
The above example is actually complex since the subject of the first sentence is not "I". Another easier example: "My happily singing (a song) becomes a star".
hYEmmAr hymmnos <-x cEzE lyuma/.
Unfortunately, due to the limit of the "<-x" grammar, you cannot express your feeling about the fact in the sentence (so "I feel sad about my..." and "I feel happy about my..." are the same when you use this type of grammar).
Unknown Grammar Mechanisms and Corrupted Pastalie Hymmnos
These are grammar mechanisms that are still unknown, but still posted in here, so if anyone it's interested can help us reach a solution.
ygulatiaz nouon gauv dejuy ygulatiaz nouon gauv dejuy
A line from ee wassa sos yehar.
Awiaa_vamuebyuiujesbOsYlmdnhyungxL YlvO!xL YlvO!!xL YlvOgzavamue!
Awiaa_vamue byui ujes bOsYlm dn hyung xLYIvO! xLYIvO!! xLYIvOg za vamue!
Tons of unknown words and verbs.
wasse zz urgn wasse kieghi wasse hiew wasse zodal sphaela!!
(Praise for no laments! Praise for kieghi! Praise for sadness! Praise for this dying world!!) ("kieghi" is still an unknown word)
That's how aquagon handled this sentence. Yes, I'm absolutely sure the translation is correct, but seeing that all other lines are Pastalie, this line must be Pastalie as well, not Standard Hymmnos, especially with the upper case letters which definitely indicates emotional vowels.
All of the currently known words for all of the Hymmnos dialects can be found over at Hymmnos:Lexicon.